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When I tell people that I work at the Golden Gate Raptor Association, it’s not unusual to get some variant on the following response:

 

Friend: Wow that’s so cool! But isn’t it dangerous?

Me: Not really, we take very careful precautions and they’re not as dangerous to humans as most people think.

Friend: But don’t they have really long claws? And I’ve heard they can run really fast, and even open doors.

Me: … We aren’t talking about the same kind of raptors, are we?

Friend: But aren’t you working with dinosaurs?

 Me: *facepalms*

 

So, if you were picturing the two-legged terrors from Jurassic Park when you read the word “raptor,” clearly you are not alone. Alas for Dinosaur Ecologists (a real profession, often called Paleoecology), velociraptors are extinct and the rest of us must content ourselves with studying their cousins: predatory birds. (Another interesting side note: Birds probably evolved from a group of dinosaurs that includes the velociraptor, so the confusion about the name may unintentionally reflect the similarities of both kinds of raptors. New research reported in National Geographic suggests that velociraptors had hollow bones and although flightless probably even had feathers.)

 

Despite it's similarity to a velociraptor, this Secretary Bird is an avian raptor all the way

Despite it’s similarity to a velociraptor, this Secretary Bird is an avian raptor all the way

To be honest, the term “raptor” often seems a little vague to me as well. This may be because the term originally had more to do with the appearance of the bird than its actual ecology. “Raptor” is generally used for any bird of prey, but as the Raptor Research Foundation’s website points out, nature does not always clearly follow our human-imposed classification systems. Nevertheless, most raptors share important ecological functions that still make it a useful term to understand the roles they play along the food chain.

 

To give a better sense, here are some of the birds included in the term “raptor”: Hawks, Eagles, Vultures, Falcons, Ospreys, Owls, Secretary Birds, and Caracaras. It does not include birds like penguins or herons, despite the fact that both of these are very capable hunters. To narrow it down a little more regionally, some of the most common raptor species that I am likely to see with the GGRO are Turkey Vultures, Red-Tailed Hawks, Sharp-Shinned Hawks, Cooper’s Hawks, Northern Harriers, Red-Shouldered Hawks, and American Kestrels.

Kori Bustard: Not a Raptor (despite its large size and dinosaur-like gait) (taken in the Mara)

Kori Bustard: Not a Raptor (despite its large size and dinosaur-like gait) (photo taken in the Mara)

(White-backed?) Vulture: Definitely a Raptor

(White-backed?) Vulture: Definitely a Raptor

Black-crowned plover and its baby: Not a Raptor (photo taken in the Mara)

Black-crowned plover and its baby: Not a Raptor

Osprey with a decapitated fish: Definitely a Raptor

Osprey with a decapitated fish: Definitely a Raptor (photo taken in Belize)

Pelican: Not a Raptor (despite being good at catching fish)

Pelican: Not a Raptor (despite being good at catching fish)

 

Now that this gives a better sense of what a raptor is, we can move to what is likely the more important question: What about them are we studying and why?

 

The “what” is a bit easier to answer because it deals with the mechanics of the study, so I’ll start with that. The Golden Gate Raptor Observatory has been studying raptors since 1986 through a combination of Hawkwatch and Banding programs, which I outlined in my previous post, but will expand on here. Hawkwatch uses a systematic technique to count the raptors migrating through the headlands. Some raptors are residents, meaning they breed and winter in the same area without migrating. However, many will move to find the places where they can get the most food, which usually results in a fall migration. At the beginning of summer, most raptors begin moving from their breeding grounds to their wintering grounds further south. Because of the way the San Francisco Bay is formed, it channels these southbound raptors along the headlands as they follow the land to avoid flying over open water. The hills of the Headlands also provide excellent thermals as the wind rises off of the ocean, providing perfect gliding conditions for migrating birds that don’t want to expend too much energy flapping. All of this funnels raptors into a smaller area where they are easier to count. Through Hawkwatch, we get long-term trends in the numbers of different species, the timing of their migration, their age (juvenile or adult), and sex-ratios for the ones where we can tell males and females apart. For example, from 1986 to 2009, the GGRO has documented the post-DDT era recovery of Peregrine Falcons. (For more data from the GGRO, visit their website http://www.parksconservancy.org/programs/ggro/ and look at Reports and Summaries).

 

By contrast, Banding is when we catch raptors in order to band and measure them. Banding is a mainstay of bird research all over the world. Essentially, when scientists band a bird they put a small aluminum bracelet around its leg that has a phone number, website, and serial number stamped on it. Some places will also attach a second plastic color band that is easier to read from a distance. Each band has a unique code so that it can be traced back to a single bird. All the bands in US come from the Bird Banding Laboratory and are entered into a government database so that if someone finds a band, they can report it (www.reportband.gov). This online system then notifies the organization that banded the bird with information such as how the band was encountered and where. It’s a very simple system, but works surprisingly well when it’s carried out on a large scale.

 

Banding a flammulated owl (photo taken in Colorado)

Banding a flammulated owl (photo taken in Colorado)

A flam nestling showing off its band

A flam nestling showing off its band

It’s always interesting to hear the stories behind banding encounters. One of the banders told us about how a Peregrine Falcon the GGRO banded later went on to nest on a high rise in San Fransisco, where someone managed to read the band on the bird as it perched outside the window. However, at the GGRO most bands are found (or “recovered” as we so euphemistically call it) when a raptor dies. Most of the raptors that are migrating through the Headlands in the summer are juvenile birds that were born a few months ago and are just making their first migration; unfortunately for them, it’s a difficult journey that most of them won’t survive. A lot of times hikers find dead banded birds and report them to park rangers or directly to the website. Migration is hard enough on its own, but these birds are also passing through miles and miles of human-dominated landscapes with all of the various hazards we unknowingly impose. The GGRO has collected hundreds of stories of birds that were recovered after they smashed into a window, were hit by a car, or tried to fly through a wind turbine. One of the most disturbing causes of death, at least to me after my experiences watching the aftermath of poisonings in Kenya, is how many raptors die from rat poison. Usually, this happens by accident, when people are trying to deal with a rodent infestation without knowing that the toxins can travel up the food chain when a raptor eats a poisoned rat.

 

Overall, this banding data helps us figure out how far and where raptors are migrating, what they are dying from, and how long they live. However, we do more than just put a band on a bird when we catch it. The Banding project also encompasses the careful measurements we take when we catch a bird. This can tell us a lot about the range of physical characteristics of raptors, and we can compare this with other sites around the world to examine regional differences. Physical measurements can also indicate overall health of the bird and we can even use them as early indications that a population is in trouble. We can also take blood samples to look at genetics, endoparasites, and a wide range of tests that help analyze the health of the bird on a finer scale. Every year, the banding program also puts out a small number of radio and Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) trackers on birds to follow their movements. These data are invaluable for looking at where different populations come from, and most importantly, how they’re doing. Because raptors are often top predators, this actually puts them in a precarious and ecologically important position, so careful monitoring is essential for their conservation. The understanding and conservation of raptors is therefore our primary objective. There are many people who debate the ethics of handling wild animals, but to me, preserving the untouched majesty of a bird isn’t worth it if it goes extinct.

 

All together, the GGRO collects a huge amount of data on these avian (not dinosaurian) top predators and I am excited be a part of it. The 2014 field season kicks off today, and I will try to keep updating about my adventures on Hawkwatch and Banding amid all the long, hectic days in the fog and wind.

 

Also, seriously, explore the links on the GGRO website, there is a ton of information there: http://www.parksconservancy.org/programs/ggro/

My new home. The interns' National Parks Service housing

My new home. The interns’ National Parks Service housing

My new workplace, the intern office

My new workplace, the intern office

I just completed my first month as an intern for the Golden Gate Raptor Observatory. It’s been a wonderful first month, despite the fact that I have few exciting stories to share out of it. It’s been hard figuring out what to write about now that I’m back in the US. Life is so different here in every way imaginable, and yet slipping back into a different rhythm has been relatively easy. So easy that it’s a bit unnerving. It already feels like this past year was some sort of dream because of my inability to correctly communicate what it was like. I don’t want the things I learned to fall by the wayside, or for my experiences to be wholly un-relatable to the life I lead afterwards. I don’t want to forget that I don’t actually need most of the things that are a part of my life when I am in the US, but rather that they are privileges that must be appreciated for what they are.

 

There are so many things that I notice and find interesting, amazing, disturbing, or unpleasant after my year abroad. Many of them are food-related (how much I missed cheese, nectarines, or ice-cream), or pertain to overlooked amenities we enjoy in the US (easy access to the internet, roads that are paved and incredibly well maintained, mainstream bike usage, health and safety). There are a ton of small things that I miss from Kenya: I notice how much my vocabulary has changed over the past year, especially with the inclusion of Swahili or Maa phrases; the grocery stores here make me feel overwhelmed and panicky; I love cooking for myself but I also miss Joseph’s food; and I never thought I’d say this, but I actually miss car checks.

 

However, there are some things that I miss about Fisi Camp or notice in the US that seem to hit on a larger concept of my sense of place and self.

  • Driving in the US does not feel as safe as I thought it would after being in Nairobi, partially because everyone drives so fast here and there are so many more rules. In a strange way, I actually felt more comfortable driving in Nairobi than I do here.
  • I have missed an entire year of pop culture, news, and politics and I’m mostly fine with that. It was strange to come home and realize that there were some very important news stories I had completely missed (such as Ukraine).
  • The US (or at least the places I tend to live within it) feels so incredibly, uncomfortably white, and in some ways I feel even more aware of my race here as I readjust back to the culture in which I grew up.
  • I don’t really have to think about dangerous animals at all or be as alert when I walk places. However, in some ways I also miss the daily adrenaline surge I got when I walked to and from my tent in the dark.
  • Lastly, I still think about the poisoning almost every single day, not usually with as much of an emotional attachment any more, but it just pops up a lot as so emblematic of conservation struggles more broadly, as well as personally to my own experiences this past year.

 

a dew-covered spider web on the trail I take to work

a dew-covered spider web on the trail I take to work

For all of that, however, I am so grateful to be living and working in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. It is a startling contrast to the Mara, but intensely beautiful nonetheless. The fog that perpetually blankets the Marin Headlands behaves like some sort of animal in its own right, and the winds that make it such a great place for raptor migrations are constantly pushing the clouds around. Whenever the fog drifts up or (more rarely) dissipates and I get a glimpse of the Golden Gate Bridge standing over the Bay, I feel so intensely happy to have landed in yet another stunning place on planet Earth.

the NPS stables covered in fog

the NPS stables covered in fog

the scenery on the way to work

the foggy scenery on the way to work

 

the view from the Miwok trail

the view from the Miwok trail

We’ve spent this first month preparing for the migration season, which will begin in the middle of August. Once the migration starts, our main tasks will be working on Hawkwatch and Banding, the two main data-collecting functions of GGRO. Hawkwatch is when we will identify and count the various raptor species that migrate through the area each day. Banding will consist of catching, measuring, weighing, and banding raptors. Bands are essentially numbered metal rings that we attach to a bird’s ankle so that if it is ever recovered (most often found dead) or caught again (either at GGRO or somewhere else), we will know that bird’s history; this allows us to look at things like how long a bird lives and how far it travels. The data from Hawkwatch and Banding together help us pull together an incredible amount of information on migration, ecology, physiology, demographics, life history, health and more. These data are ultimately used to further scientific understanding, and most importantly (to me at least), conserve these important aerial predators.

 

Pelicans in Rodeo Lagoon

Pelicans in Rodeo Lagoon (not a raptor but still cool)

a cormorant in Rodeo Lagoon

a cormorant in Rodeo Lagoon

California Quail and chick

California Quail and chick in front of our house

A very well camouflaged California Quail chick

A very well camouflaged California Quail chick

In addition to Hawkwatch and Banding, we will help to coordinate volunteer efforts, conduct independent research projects, and basically help make sure everything is running smoothly while hopefully learning a lot along the way. Until the migration starts, however, we are mostly doing odd jobs around the office, cleaning out cages, constructing banding blinds and platforms, repairing and testing nets, and above all, learning to identify the various raptor species we will see once the migration starts. The process for IDing raptor species reminds me of learning hyena spot patterns, except that there is a huge amount of individual variation within each species, I will have to identify them from extremely long distances (at least during Hawkwatch), and I have a much shorter amount of time before I need to be proficient in my ability to distinguish animals.

 

Part of why I was so excited to work with GGRO is because the organization is mostly comprised of volunteers. The people who donate their time to help collect information on raptors are incredibly passionate and skilled, and it has been immensely fun to start getting to know them. Everyone I work with is interesting, enthusiastic, and personable. I can’t wait for the migration to start!

another dew-drop covered spider web

another dew-drop covered spider web

Rodeo beach, in front of our office

Rodeo beach, in front of our office

I’m finally back home in Oregon for a short while before I move on to the next adventure. I was hoping to write more before I left Kenya or at least sooner after I arrived back in the states, but as always, I needed a bit more transition time than I anticipated on both ends.

 

My last week in Kenya was very nice. I got to meet some of the researchers that are coming in as I leave, and I had a fun time soaking up the wisdom of the older generation from Kay and Dee. My favorite moment was one night when Kay jokingly asked me who I would like them to dart before I left. I say “jokingly” because it’s next to impossible to pick ahead of time who you will dart, since it’s hard to predict which hyenas you will even see on a given day, let alone which ones will present themselves in perfect darting conditions. I put my bid in for Princess Buttercup (Pbut for short), Parcheesi’s year-old cub and the first black cub I ever saw. She is a bold but not exactly brilliant cub, and is one of my favorites because of her funny antics. I didn’t really expect them to be able to dart her, but then the next day, Hadley texted Dee and me to come to the other car.

Pbut! Notice how her teeth still haven't come in yet

Pbut! Notice how her teeth still haven’t come in yet

Benson holding Pbut. She's so small one person can carry her.

Benson holding Pbut. She’s so small one person can carry her.

 

Sure enough, Hadley managed to fulfill my parting wish, and they darted Pbut as she was wandering across a field. She is just den graduating (growing old enough that she begins to move around on her own) and was by far the youngest cub I’d ever seen darted. She didn’t even have all of her teeth in yet. Since she was born almost at the same time as I came out to the Hyena Project, it felt very full circle to get to say goodbye to her in person.

 

I felt so confident in my ability to do my job well, and also recognized so many places for improvement, that it was hard to leave feeling like there was more I could do out there. However, I was also ready to come home. Kenya is a gorgeous country but it is not always an easy place to work, and while I constantly miss the hyenas and the people I worked with, there is a decently long list of things that I will not miss at all (#1 would probably be the blatant and pervasive corruption).

Sunrise from my last hot air balloon ride

Sunrise from my last hot air balloon ride

Hadley on our final balloon flight together

Hadley on our final balloon flight together

a vulture's nest from the air

a vulture’s nest from the air

View from the balloon out towards Serena

View from the balloon out towards Serena

Also before I left, I got one last encounter with the black mamba (which may not actually be a black mamba, as I’ll explain). This time, I was trying to get a look at an elephant that was foraging near my tent in the middle of the day and determine whether it was about to bring a branch down on the tarp, when I saw something move out of the corner of my eye. I saw a very long silvery-brownish-grey body slide into a complex of holes that used to belong to a rat that I hadn’t seen in a few weeks (now we know why). Kay is taking the whole snake thing very seriously, and apparently by now they have installed a critter camera to try to catch the snake in motion, figure out where it’s spending most of it’s time, and determine exactly which species it is. Kay explained that based on my description and the fact that it ran away from me the first time, there is a possibility that it could be a cobra, which are known to be less aggressive and at least slightly less deadly (though versus a black mamba, pretty much anything is less deadly. Also, one last chance for me to throw in a cool hyena fact: Kay has seen hyenas get attacked by deadly cobras and survive, and I have also heard accounts of them surviving black mamba bites unscathed).

 

I had some fun leaving luck on the way out and got to see lots of cute cubs and the start of the migration again. I had been soaking up every moment for the last few months but it was still nice to see lions and hyena babies one last time.

Two young lions mating

Two young lions mating

Helios nursing Tira (Tierra Del Fuego) and Rion (Rio Negro)

Helios nursing Tira (Tierra Del Fuego) and Rion (Rio Negro)

Helios with one of her cubs

Helios with one of her cubs

Some black-backed jackals being cute

Some black-backed jackals being cute

The migration came back just before I left

The migration came back just before I left

I got to meet Kenna, one of Kay’s graduate students, in Nairobi before I left. Kenna is working with hyena vocalizations and has some really awesome theories that I hope to get updates about. Hyenas have a huge range of sounds that they can make, and these vocalizations comprise another facet of their complex social lives; now, sound analysis technology is advanced enough that Kenna may be able to analyze more specific differences in calls, as well as the situations in which they are used. She has some cool ideas about how rank might influence when hyenas vocalize, and how unique vocalizations might play a role in attracting a mate.

 

Finally, my time in Kenya was up. I lugged my giant suitcases to the airport, got to very, very briefly meet two of the new Research Assistants who flew in the same evening that I left, enjoy the last ineptitude of Kenya’s inefficient airport organization, and then bid the cool East African night farewell.

Baez at the new den

Baez at the new den

 

***

 

I decided to split up the long journey home and visit my friend Lindsay, who is studying abroad in Germany. I stayed with her for a little less than a week, spending most of my time in Göttingen, the university town that’s known for it’s famous alumni and teachers, including the Brothers Grimm and Gauss.

 

As someone with European Jewish ancestry, Germany has always held a certain negative connotation for me, so I was rather surprised at how much I liked it there. The people were very friendly, spoke excellent English, and didn’t give me a hard time when they realized that I spoke no German whatsoever. Everything was very clean and orderly, which felt incredibly nice after Kenya’s perplexingly inefficient non-systems.

 

I was worried that I would have a hard time so far removed from the natural world, but I was able to find beautiful green spaces even in Germany. The university has multiple large botanical gardens and pretty outdoor spaces. Obviously it doesn’t match up to seeing savannah megafauna go walking past your tent each day, but it certainly helped the transition.

 

An underwater salamander I found at the  botanical gardens

An underwater salamander I found at the botanical gardens

I had a lot of fun eating delicious food (cheese, cheese, and more cheese) and catching up with Lindsay. It was fun just getting to see a different world for a bit. It’s strange to think that Germany and Kenya are just one time zone apart, yet are so completely different. It also emphasized to me how lucky Kenya is to still have so many natural spaces and wildlife left, since a lot of the students I met at the University really bemoan the dearth of untouched nature in Germany.

 

It was too short of a trip, but I was also eager to finally get home. After two more excruciatingly long flights, I finally got my first mom hug I’d had in a year.

 

Now that I’m finally back, it’s strange how easily I’ve slipped back into this life. In some ways it’s nice, and in other ways it’s frustrating and a little unsettling. It seems like no matter how much I learn and how mature I grow, I will always be a child to my parents and I will always find myself falling into the role of youngest sibling when I’m with my family. Life here is safe and tame, and I appreciate what a privilege it is to live so comfortably, yet it’s hard to deal with all the emotions that go along with that recognition alongside the desire for exploration. I am constantly thinking about my friends back in Kenya, and especially the hyenas. It’s hard realizing that there really isn’t anyone here who can fully understand and connect with what I experienced over the last year, though I have no lack of support from my family during the transition. I still think about the poisoning a lot, and it’s harder to express how I feel about that here.

 

For the most part however, I really love being home and surrounding myself with family, friends, pets, good food, and all the little amenities that I have missed. Oregon is even more beautiful than I had remembered, and I am glad to be in the US for a while. My nephew Ira An Lei is so big now, and is fully interacting with the world. I find myself comparing him to hyena cubs, since those are the last young animals I watched grow up. An Lei may not be as fluffy, but he’s quite cute anyways.

 

Unagi, Taurus, and Pisces, three of the cubs that were born just before I left

Unagi, Taurus, and Pisces, three of the cubs that were born just before I left

***

 

After a very brief trip home, I just arrived at my next job. I will be spending the next half of a year working as an Intern with the Golden Gate Raptor Observatory. As I move in and explore the area, I appreciate how vastly different but strikingly beautiful this place is compared with Kenya. There is so much fog, and it rolls rapidly over the green hills, reminding me much more of a chilly Nairobi morning than the sunny and flat Mara. The views out over the water and the Golden Gate Bridge are spectacular, and it is an interesting mix of human structure alongside natural beauty.

 

I can’t wait to start working with the raptors (the large predatory birds, not the dinosaurs—though they are related). The GGRO is a longstanding volunteer-based organization perfectly situated along a migration corridor, and working here will be a wonderful opportunity to learn how to identify birds in flight and actually handle these beautiful birds of prey.

Kay Holekamp, the researcher who runs the Hyena Project, flew out to oversee the project for the summer and make sure things were running smoothly. She is our boss as well as a well-known and respected researcher, so we were all nervous and excited to have her in camp. It’s been really neat to learn from someone who has as much experience as she does.

 

We've been darting more with Kay around to lend her expertise to the process. Here is Dave preparing the drug for the dart.

We’ve been darting more with Kay around to lend her expertise to the process. Here is Dave preparing the drug for the dart.

Benson preparing to dart

Benson preparing to dart

Weighing a grass rat as part of a small mammal lecture Kay gave to a group of MSU students

Weighing a grass rat as part of a small mammal lecture Kay gave to a group of MSU students

The first night Kay went on obs with us, we sat at the new den for nearly an hour before the cubs came out. While we waited, we noticed that there were bats flying around then den; then, we realized that they were actually flying in and out of the den itself. At first I wondered whether that meant that the hyenas had abandoned the den, but Kay explained that bats will often roost in active hyena dens. Sure enough, after a few minutes, Harpy and Alfredo’s cubs popped out of the den too.

 

Juno and her cubs at the den

Juno and her cubs at the den

I’ve always found it interesting how many different animals share dens with hyenas. I’d seen for myself that warthogs will at least live in neighboring den holes, and apparently porcupines will share space with hyena cubs too. The bats are especially interesting to me because I would have thought they’d be extremely vulnerable in their roosts. It’s amazing to think about an entire world of interactions going on beneath the surface of the ground. We spend so much time with the hyenas, but even so, there are so many unknowns about their daily life. To me, that just reinforces how important long-term research projects are. Kay has been out here studying hyenas since before I was born, and there are still so many questions to ask. It’s incredibly hard to keep a project like this going for so many years, but I wish it were more of the norm in field science rather than the exception.

 

Buar playing with her younger sibling (one of Helios' new cubs) at the den

Buar playing with her younger sibling (one of Helios’ new cubs) at the den

***

 

I finally had my first close encounter with a snake here in camp. I was walking to the storage tent to get some supplies, with my mind on whatever it was I needed, when all of a sudden, something moved on the ground in front of me. A snake had been sunning itself on the rocks next to the solar panels, and I had come about a foot away from stepping on it. I only realized it was there as I saw the end of a shiny grey body slither away fast as it could go into the bushes, presumably to save itself from being trodden upon. I was completely surprised, and the encounter immediately got my heart pounding. When I returned to the lab tent, I described what had happened to Dave, and he pulled up a picture on his computer.

“Did it look like this?” he asked.

“Yeah, that’s exactly it! … That’s a black mamba, isn’t it?”

“Yep”

 

I was certainly more nervous about the encounter after I realized it had been one of the world’s deadliest snakes. While a black mamba bite does not ensure that a person will die, one generally only has thirty minutes to get the antivenom before the chances of survival plummet to essentially zero (there is only one recorded case of a person surviving without antivenom, and even he had intense medical assistance). It is strange to think that therefore in some ways, my life hinged upon the split-second fight-or-flight instinct of another living being. It was another reminder of how many things in life are completely out of our control and how unnerving that realization can be.

 

***

 

One night, we went out for obs and found a giant flock of swallows zooming over the plain. We often see large groups of them foraging in the air over the plains or water, but this was on another level. There were hundreds of them in the air, swirling in a mass above and around the car. It had rained a little the previous night so we thought that maybe they were after termites.

 

***

 

Wilson had never had a birthday celebration before because he didn’t know exactly when he was born, and there isn’t as much of a tradition of celebrating birthdays with the Maasai here. So we decided to pick a day and throw him a small birthday party after obs.

 

We were heading back from obs a little early so that we could celebrate together, when we came across a hyena lying down. When we stopped to ID her, she suddenly leapt up and started running, so we followed her. She led us straight into chaos. We were bumping along off road behind the hyena, trying to find her in the dark, when we noticed herder’s flashlights sweeping around. Then we saw a group of hyenas converging on an animal, and realized it was a cow. We drove up and scared the hyenas off of the cow just as the herder came running back, but we could already see two giant gaping wounds in the animal’s side.

 

I had never seen a Maasai man so distraught. He was crying so hard he could barely breath and he was shaking all over. At first, I thought he was just distraught about the hyenas attacking his cow, but slowly Benson and Wilson translated what had really happened. The hyenas were only the second animals giving the herder trouble that night – a group of elephants with young calves had suddenly materialized out of the bushes a few minutes earlier and started chasing the herders. One of them had gored a cow in front of the herder and then chased him and the other men away. The hyenas then closed in on the wounded cow once the elephants moved back and before the people could chase them away. The herder was so upset because he’d almost been trampled, and because he thought that the elephants had gored more than one cow, so it took him a while to calm down enough for his friends to explain that only one cow was injured. This was all made more serious by the news that just a few days earlier elephants killed a man in the Lloita area not far from Talek.

Elephants can be unpredictable and dangerous. This is one that charged at us from the bushes when we didn't see it and got too close.

Elephants can be unpredictable and dangerous. This is one that charged at us from the bushes when we didn’t see it and got too close.

 

Hadley, Julie, and I waited in the car while the guys sorted out what to do with the cow. She was clearly a goner—her guts were exposed and she already smelled like death—but shock had set in so deeply that she kept standing up and trying to walk back to the herd. It was disturbing to watch the cow walk around with her stomach almost falling out of her side, but it was a mercy that somehow she didn’t seem to be in pain.

 

Finally, we sorted everything out and headed back to camp. We were worried that given the night’s events we might want to postpone the birthday festivities, but in the end I think it helped us get our minds off of the whole ordeal. Besides, Wilson was ecstatic to have his first-ever birthday party; he kept standing up to make speeches about how happy he was and was still thanking us the next morning.

Koitobos, a Fig Tree cub with a giant wound that we think was probably from a lion

Koitobos, a Fig Tree cub with a giant wound that we think was probably from a lion

The Mourning Giraffe

We saw something very strange on obs this past week. One morning, we were at the den, when a group of hyenas started whooping and moving away into the bushes. We couldn’t see what had them so agitated, so we decided to follow. It took us a long time to navigate all of the bushes, but we finally found them running in and out of the thicket around a tall female giraffe. Then we realized that she was standing over a juvenile giraffe that was lying on the ground. We couldn’t tell what was wrong with the juvenile, but it was clearly dying. It was sprawled out on its side and every once in a while it would twitch its head and kick its legs out uselessly. We couldn’t see anything visibly wrong with it but we assumed it must have broken something critical or gotten sick. The hyenas circled excitedly at first, but the mother giraffe kept standing over the juvenile, sometimes running at the hyenas until they backed off. Ripkin, one of our youngest subadults, kept sitting down in the bushes next to the juvenile, watching it hungrily.

 

We stayed to watch, expecting the mother to leave when she realized that her baby was doomed. We stayed for a long time until it became clear that the giraffe wasn’t going anywhere. So we left, planning to come back that evening just in case she was still there.

 

That night, we made our way back, mostly expecting not to see anything since it had been so long. Instead, as we drove up, we saw the mother giraffe’s head sticking out above the bushes. She was still there guarding her calf, which was still alive, but unable to stand or move much at all. There were lots of hyenas in the bushes, waiting for her to leave. Most of them weren’t getting very close since a giraffe can kick the head off an adult male lion, let alone a hyena. They were just resting patiently, waiting. The giraffe, on the other hand, looked very stressed. She had strings of saliva hanging from her mouth and kept walking away from the juvenile as if she was about to leave, and then running back as though she’d changed her mind. We were surprised that she was still standing guard, especially since her calf was clearly not going to make it, and she was unable to eat much herself while she guarded it.

 

The mother giraffe standing guard over her dying calf

The mother giraffe standing guard over her dying calf

Amazon loped up as we were watching. She paced around the giraffe and sat down to wait. But after a few minutes, she seemed to get frustrated, and began whooping. After that, she loped away, presumably too impatient to wait for a meal. Finally, we left as well.

 

The next night when we returned, the mother giraffe was still there, but the juvenile was dead and partially eaten. The hyenas were still mostly keeping their distance but something, probably one of the lionesses we’ve been seeing in that area recently, had managed to eat out some of the internal organs. The mother giraffe either hadn’t comprehended that her calf was dead, or didn’t care, because she continued to keep guard over its body, chasing away any hyena that inched too close. However, after two days of vigilance, she was clearly getting tired; it was taking her longer to run back to the carcass every time she swayed away. Every once in a while she would go just far enough that a few of the hyenas would crawl up and start feeding, but then she would run back and chase them away again. We couldn’t understand why she was still expending so much energy and risking starvation for a calf that was clearly dead.

 

I think perhaps people are sometimes too presumptuous about the separation between animals and humans. There was no (apparent) logical explanation for the giraffe’s reaction except maybe a parental care instinct in overdrive; rather, it seemed as though she was simply unable to let her baby go. Scientists have documented grieving responses in other animals before, so this is nothing new, but still poignantly touching to witness. It makes me wonder whether and how the hyenas might be grieving for their lost clan members after the poisoning event.

 

By the next morning, there were no signs that there had ever been a giraffe in that clearing at all—not even a bloodstain was left. All we found were two hyenas, Alice and Kyoto, sniffing hopefully at the ground.

 

***

 

The rainy season never showed up. It’s supposed to have been raining for months now, but we haven’t had a drop in weeks. All of Kenya is in the middle of a drought, maybe all of East Africa. The guys in camp are getting really worried about their crops and animals back home. At this point, even if the rains do come, it’s probably too late—the corn has already grown up, and may die without even flowering or producing cobs; the bean pods have grown without any beans inside; the cows are too skinny to reproduce.

 

In the Mara, I worry that the dry spell will only put the hyenas in greater conflict with people, because the herders have come back into the reserve and a skinny cow is an easy mark. On the other hand, it might actually be helpful, because without rain, the migration may come to the Mara earlier than expected, which would be an incredible boon to all the carnivores in the area.

 

The dryness and heat have had a noticeable effect on the land. There is an unbelievable amount of dust everywhere. I watched a goat in Talek as it picked at food on the ground, and every exhale from its nose sent up a cloud of dust. Inside the reserve, it’s just as bad. Every time I stop the car, the dust we’ve kicked up catches up with us and leaves us choking; sometimes it’s so bad we lose sight of the hyenas. By the end of obs our eyes sting and our noses hurt, and every time I wipe my face it comes away orange.

In some ways, the aftermath of the poisonings has been even harder than the event itself. We knew beforehand that we wouldn’t be able to find all the bodies, but it has been taxing to keep a daily tally of who we have and haven’t seen since the poisoning. The first time we see a hyena is a tremendous relief, but as the days have worn on and we still haven’t seen many members of the clan, it’s beginning to set in that we have lost a large number of animals.

 

We now suspect that the poison claimed the lives of at least 19 hyenas, and there are several more that we still haven’t seen but we think (or hope) probably weren’t in the area at the time. Among the ones that we’re now fairly convinced are dead are Crimson, yet another new mother who was a consistent presence at the den; Argon, an older, low ranking mother, and the sister of Xenon; Loki, a higher ranking oddball female; Galapagos (or Gala for short), the reigning princess of the clan, and one of my favorite hyenas because I’ve watched her come into her rank just during the time that I’ve been here; Wellington, the high ranking immigrant male whom we joked was “married” to Helios because he always followed her around; and Mork, another immigrant male with striking spots and a slightly goofy disposition.

 

Crimson

Crimson

Argon with Lazy

Argon with her cub Lazy

Loki

Loki

Gala

Gala

Wellington

Wellington

Mork

Mork

The hardest part of the poisoning for me has been the repercussions of all of the mothers that were killed. Hyena cubs rely on their mother to nurse them, to help them learn their rank, help them find food, and protect them at carcass sessions until they are about three years old. There is a huge amount of maternal investment involved with raising a cub, which may be why it is extremely unusual for another mother to help raise a cub that isn’t hers. This means that without their moms, the cubs whose mothers were poisoned have been slowly starving to death, and it takes them much longer to die than I would have expected. Instead, we have watched them get slowly more and more lethargic and skinny. While their peers with living mothers play and run around the den, they just sit there and waste away. Lazy and Rage, Argon’s cubs, even got abandoned at the old den site and simply spend their days huddled against each other, waiting for a mother that will never come back. Each day we expect to find some of them dead, but they only look skinnier. It’s likely that they will crawl into the den before they finally die, so we may never find their bodies either.

Lazy, Rage, and Circle starving to death without their mothers

Lazy, Rage, and Circle starving to death without their mothers

 

Crimson’s cub Cyberman is the only one that seems at all likely to survive. She is fighting so hard to stay alive that it both breaks my heart and gives me a small spark of hope. She is still so small, but we’ve seen her following adult hyenas very far from the den to join in carcass sessions. Her best trick yet, however, seems to be bullying lower ranking mothers into nursing her. Ted is another young mother with just one cub (we think she originally had two but lost one early on), and through sheer obnoxious tenacity, Cyberman has been managing to nurse fairly regularly from her. She will follow Ted around and squitter constantly (a squitter is an obnoxious, squealing noise that a cub makes when it’s hungry), essentially ensuring that Ted will get no peace unless she allows Cyberman to nurse too. I don’t know if it will be enough to help her survive all the way to adulthood, but her will to live is so strong that if any of our orphans can do it, she’s the one.

Cyberman

Cyberman

 

Baez with her new cub born just after the poisoning. We named her Hope after Hope Solo.

Baez with her new cub born just after the poisoning. We named her Hope after Hope Solo.

***

 

At this point, it seems very clear that whoever was responsible for the poisonings will never be caught. Whether this is because of a lack of resources and expertise, or simply a lack of interest, I don’t know. The high expectations I had after the professional KWS post-mortem have fizzled by now, and it leaves me feeling even more dejected about the whole situation.

 

Part of what makes the poisoning event hard to cope with is that it is so emblematic of the deep problems in this area. While I still think poisoning a carcass shows an unforgivable level of stupidity, I can understand the reasons why a herder would do it. Especially after traveling around Kenya a little more, I can see that this community along the reserve is much worse off than a lot of other areas in the country. And right now, people are struggling even harder than normal because the rainy season that was supposed to support crops and livestock never arrived. There are so many ways in which the local community could and should benefit from the reserve, but the rampant corruption makes any potential solution untenable.

 

I had an interesting thought the other day when I was contemplating how heart-breaking it is to watch our cubs starve to death. I was making myself angry, wishing that I could make whoever was responsible for the poisoning feel what I feel watching the cubs die. I wished we could let them shadow our job for a year—let them follow the hyenas, watch them grow, form social bonds and enemies, fight, feed, mate, and have children, and then watch them die and see their children slowly waste away—no normal, social human being could watch that and not feel remorse at the suffering the poisoning caused. But then I started thinking about what the Maasai guys we work with have told us about what it means to be a good herder. You have to really know each one of your cows—what they act like when they eat, walk, mate, and interact with other cows, to the extent that you will know if one is pregnant, sick, injured, or acting strangely. You give them names and have to be familiar with them so well that even if one gets lost or stolen, you’ll recognize it months later. You help them give birth, watch their children grow, and although yes, you sometimes kill them for meat, as Joseph says, it isn’t a job that most people do for the money, but rather because “We love cows.” So to watch your cow starve to death in a drought or be killed by a hyena must be a blow that goes beyond the monetary loss. In many ways, the sorrow I feel at loosing an animal that I feel attached to because I have observed it for so long is not all that dissimilar from the emotions that probably spurred the herder who poisoned the carcass in the first place. This realization makes me feel even more strongly that there has to be a way to help the local community here re-connect with the wildlife in the reserve, both monetarily and emotionally. My anger needs to be directed not at the person who did the poisoning, but the system that created his desire to do so.

The funeral pyre for one of the unidentifiable hyena corpses we found a few days after the main poisoning event

The funeral pyre for one of the unidentifiable hyena corpses we found a few days after the main poisoning event

A Living Nightmare

I just got back from Blanket’s necropsy. I’m not sure how to communicate exactly what happened or how I feel because the details of both those things are still a little hazy right now. Blanket is the fourth hyena since the beginning of April who has been killed by poisoning. Idi, Honey, and Endor were all poisoned while Julie and I were on our trip to Lamu, but this is a new poisoning event, and this one happened inside the park, not all that far from the den.

 

Honey

Honey

Hadley and Benson with Endor when we darted him a few months before the poisoning

Hadley and Benson with Endor when we darted him a few months before the poisoning

Idi

Idi

Hadley and Benson found Blanket dead at the end of obs this morning. He had a sticky pink substance coming out of his anus, and was bleeding from his mouth, nose and eyes. When they brought his body back to camp, it looked like he was crying blood. The necropsy was fascinating in a very awful way; whatever they used to poison him was a disturbingly potent substance. The flies that landed on Blanket began to die, littering the ground around him with their twitching bodies. His internal organs, especially the liver, were discolored, and had a blotchy, irritated look to them. The inside of his stomach contained the remains of a calf that looked like it had been doused in a pink substance akin to pepto bismol, though it had a decidedly less friendly effect. We’re all still in shock. We haven’t been able to find the carcass that was poisoned, and we know that the casualties will probably include a lot more than just this one subadult.

Blanket

Blanket

In retrospect, maybe I should have seen this coming—hyena-human conflict only seems to have intensified since I’ve been here. But this isn’t something you anticipate. The sheer idiocy of a poisoning event crosses the line from retaliation for livestock predation into the realm of recklessly dangerous stupidity. Historically, it’s probably the most destructive thing a single person can do to in one instance to an entire hyena clan, yet most people here know better than to try. This is because poison is indiscriminant and creates a huge amount of collateral damage.

 

When a poisoning happens, it usually occurs after a hyena has killed a cow. The herder chases the hyenas away, puts poison on the carcass, and then leaves it for the hyenas to finish. However, any poison strong enough to kill multiple hyenas is strong enough to kill basically any other living thing (keep in mind that hyenas are able to shake off black mamba bites, diseases like anthrax or rabies, and wounds that would easily be fatal on other animals). Usually, when a carcass is poisoned, it kills scores of hyenas, a few lions, lots of jackals and vultures, and even domestic dogs. What is even more concerning is that the flies that died around Blanket clearly demonstrate that the poison remains deadly even after it is consumed, which means that it can spread secondarily to an even broader swath of the ecosystem. To add another level of concern, when an animal is poisoned, it seeks out water to drink. This means that they can also spread the poison to an aquatic ecosystem, which in an area where most people get their drinking water from rivers could actually end up harming humans as well. The probable and potential effects of a poisoning event are extremely serious and disturbingly wide reaching.

 

This isn’t even considering the fact that any substance that is that deadly is also almost certainly illegal, or that whoever is using it is probably a local herder, which means they probably have a large family and lots of small children without a safe place to store deadly chemicals. And then there is also the concern for those of us who have to handle the contaminated carcasses—both Benson and Wilson, who are usually fairly cavalier about safety precautions, were very concerned about the possibility of us being exposed to the poison while doing the necropsy. But even without these side notes, the basic idea is that poisoning events are very serious, not just for hyenas, but for any living thing that comes into contact with it, even secondarily.

 

This is a concern that is shared by Kenya Wildlife Services and most local community members. I asked Benson and Wilson about the last time a poisoning occurred some time around 2010, and they said that when KWS found the man who did it, they put him in jail and fined him 500,000 Kenyan shillings (almost $6,000), which is enough to pay for a car, a dowry, or 50 calves.

 

***

 

The widening circle of effect from the poison is turning into a nightmare. Just a few hours after I sat down to write about Blanket, we got a call about more dead hyenas. I had been hoping we might get a day or so before other bodies turned up, or that maybe the calf in Blanket’s stomach was too small to kill many others, but there’s practically no way to kill only one animal with poison.

 

In the car, we all expressed some of our feelings about the situation. Benson said that the local people here should be the stewards of the reserve, not trying to destroy it. It seems clear to me that they don’t feel as though they are benefitting from the reserve if they are taking such drastic actions. However, Wilson made a very good point that what the people should do instead of killing animals is demonstrate in front of the gate and demand that the park revenue be distributed more fairly (something that has happened in other areas of Kenya with what sounds like a surprising amount of success). Hadley cautioned that the people here may not have the education to know that they have a right to demand benefits. It’s still unclear to all of us whether whoever did this fully understood the repercussions of their actions. On the one hand, previous poisonings have been big news that most people would have heard about, but on the other hand, they still might not know that even a small amount of poison can have such giant effects because of the way that ecosystems work.

 

As we drove towards the area where Hadley and Benson found Blanket, we kept an eye out for any dead animals. Then we saw a strange shape in a tree, a tangle of cream-colored wings sticking out at odd angles from the branches. As we drove up, we saw it was a dead tawny eagle hanging off its perch. Above it, there was another eagle that was panting and struggling to fly away. We managed to get the dead one out and when we looked at it, we saw pink goo oozing from its mouth and the stain of pink on its feet. Tawny eagles are a bit like vultures in that they will also congregate at a kill to eat the meat. And apparently they will eat it poison or no poison.

 

The first dead tawny eagle we found

The first dead tawny eagle we found

We had to climb on the car to get the tawny eagle out of the tree, and as we looked across the plain, we realized that there were more small bodies scattered across it, from a variety of species. Even before we got close to each of them, I felt a sense of horror seeing the scale of effect laid out before us.

 

The first animal we drove to was a lappet-faced vulture that was still in the process of dying. I had never seen a vulture lying on its back before, and up-close it looked huge compared to when I’d seen them soaring over the plain. That vulture was one of the most upsetting things I saw all day. It was struggling so hard just to breathe, and every once in a while a spasm would rack its body and cause it to clench its talons. It was so clearly in pain, I couldn’t watch it.

 

The dying vulture

The dying vulture

As we made our way towards the dead hyenas that we could see lying on the plain, we found a dead black-backed jackal that something had started to eat. By now, we recognized the signs of the poison—bleeding from the mouth and nose, pink paste and blood coming out of the anus, and dead flies all around. Next to the jackal, a tawny eagle was stumbling around, trying to fly and falling on its side, clearly dying. We realized that the eagle had been trying to eat the jackal and had been poisoned secondarily. At that point, we decided to collect the bodies and put them in one place so that no more animals could get killed.

 

Hadley investigating a tawny eagle that was poisoned secondarily after eating a jackal that had eaten poisoned meat

Hadley investigating a tawny eagle that was poisoned secondarily after eating a jackal that had eaten poisoned meat

The first hyena we found was Mousetrap. She’s the bossy older sister of Parcheesi, the hyena I first saw take down a wildebeest. They both had matching ear damage, but Mousetrap had one of the most distinctive spot patterns of any hyena in the clan. She had just had her first cub, Earl Warren (Ewar for short), who is a rambunctious mischief-maker and is too young to survive without her. When we found Mousetrap, there were two strings of dried blood coming out of her nose, coated in dead flies, and the same telltale pink stains on her fur.

 

Mousetrap, as we found her

Mousetrap, as we found her

The growing pile of carcasses in the car

The growing pile of carcasses in the car

After that we found another black-backed jackal. That raised our non-hyena casualty total after just half an hour to three tawny eagles, one vulture, and two jackals. We knew that there were probably more that we would never find, because there was a dense lugga (thicketed area along a stream) nearby where most of the dead animals would have sought out as they died.

 

The next hyena was Xenon. She was another beautiful young first time mother. We had just finally confirmed seeing her nurse the night before, and hadn’t even given her cub a name yet. Her cub is also too young to survive without her. Xenon was in the best shape of the dead animals we’d seen so far, and hadn’t bloated as much, but she had the same signs of poisoning as all the others.

 

As we moved all the animals into the shade to slow down the decomposition process, we met up with a warden and James, a county council ranger who happens to be related to two fisi camp staff members. They told us that KWS vets were on their way. It was helpful to know that everyone was taking the situation very seriously. We decided to split up and look for more bodies.

 

Wilson had the good thought that some of the hyenas might try to get to the den as they were dying, so we made our way towards it. Benson and Wilson scoured the bushes around the den and found another hyena in the creek. It took us a while to get her out of the water and the tangle of bushes, but when we laid her out we saw it was Obama. Obama is yet another first-time mother, and her cub Sycamore Fig is also too young to survive without her. Because she died in water, Obama was a very grizzly sight. Even though she only died the previous night at the latest, her skin was coming off her face and belly, and the flesh around her phallus and anus was eroding away.

 

Finding Obama highlighted just how difficult it will be to know exactly how many animals were killed by this single event. If others also went into water surrounded by bushes, we may never find them. It was also a very heavy blow that all of the hyenas we found were young nursing mothers whose cubs will not survive without them.

 

***

 

After we got all the carcasses together in one place, we waited for the KWS vets to arrive. When they got there, a group of about 10 vets, vets in training, assistants, wardens, and rangers, got out and took in the scene. In a sad way, it was helpful to hear the exclamations of “Ah! Mbaya sana!” (Oh how bad) as they walked among the corpses—it at least showed that the officials were as struck by the death toll as we were.

 

the KWS team doing necropsies

the KWS team doing necropsies

At that point, we basically let the KWS vet Dr. Limo take over. I was glad to give control over to KWS, partially because I was exhausted just from collecting all the dead animals (and sick of the smell of so many corpses and the strange smell the poison added to the mix), and also because I knew they were our best chance of actually catching and sentencing whoever did this. David the KWS ecologist collected the information we had (GPS locations and total number of deaths that we’d seen so far), and asked a few questions. They collected tissue samples and then decided to do a post-mortem on Xenon.

Xenon opened up for a post-mortem

Xenon opened up for a post-mortem

 

It was morbidly fascinating to watch Dr. Limo work. He clearly had a lot of experience, and was able to point out the ways in which the poison had affected Xenon’s body. He explained that the bleeding from the nose and mouth was due to hemorrhaging in the trachea and lungs. He cut a chunk of lung off and showed us how it sank rather than floated, demonstrating that the air pockets had been filled with blood. There was hemorrhaging in the intestines and other internal organs as well. The most telling moment, however, was when he cut open Xenon’s stomach. The smell was awful, an intensified wallop of the sweet chemically decomposing stench that we’d been smelling all day. Inside were the remains of a cow that were stained an otherworldly neon pink and purple.

 

By the time we were done with Xenon’s post-mortem, it was nighttime and we still had to figure out how to dispose of the bodies in such a way that nothing else could eat them and die. After debating the merits of burning, the vets decided to bring the bodies back to KWS and put them in a covered cement trash pit where they could decompose without anything getting to them. However, first we had to burn the bloodstains off the grass where we’d done the post-mortem because even that amount of poison residue was deadly. So Wilson drove back to camp to get petrol, and we took the opportunity to chat with the people from KWS. It was really neat to talk with Kenyan researchers who felt as passionately about conservation as we do.

 

Finally, Wilson returned and we collected a few small samples from the hyenas and then loaded everything in the back of the car. Then we poured petrol on the bloody ground and set it alight. There was something about the fire that felt distinctly cleansing after our very long day.

 

After that, we drove the carcasses to the KWS research station. It was a long drive, and the smell of so many dead animals was enough to keep me with my head out the window almost the whole way (luckily, there was some magical plant around the KWS station that smelled somewhat like sage and helped my nose out tremendously towards the end). I didn’t like dropping Mousetrap, Obama, and Xenon into a deep cement pit as their final resting place, but the toxicity of the poison meant that it was the best possible option. They covered the opening with a cement block, we said goodnight and thank you, and headed home.

 

***

 

Despite the sincere concern expressed by those officials present at the post-mortem, we were a little worried that no real action would be taken as a result of the poisoning. Although KWS is carrying out the analyses of the poison, the County Council owns the reserve and so are the ones in charge of the actual investigation. We were worried that they might not consider it as serious as we did, or that the usual issues with corruption would slow investigation. We were very wrong about that. I am not sure I have been as pleasantly surprised by anything else in Kenya as I have been by the County Council’s response to the event so far.

 

Apparently, park rangers convened a meeting in town the day after the post-mortem and told the community that they had acted badly—the rangers had allowed them to graze in the reserve, and in return someone was killing wildlife. So the wardens said that no one would be allowed to graze their animals in the reserve until the person responsible came forward. They gave the community four days to bring forth information on the culprit before they called in the General Service Unit (a national brute squad that has a reputation for power abuse of the shoot-first variety). We’re actually hoping that the last bit was an empty threat, because calling in GSU would be very scary and even in my opinion an overreaction, but the ultimatum itself was far more than we ever expected the officials to do. Even more encouraging, it sounds like the people in the community are eager to help the rangers in their investigation.

 

That night, the Mara was unlike anything I have ever seen. There were no cows. Not a single one. We couldn’t believe it. We met James that night and he said there were 42 rangers all along the Talek River stopping herders from entering. There has not been a single night since I’ve been here that we didn’t see cows in the reserve, so it was very different to drive around and not see them. This is a huge reaction and I am very hopeful that even if it doesn’t ultimately catch the person responsible, it does send a strong message to the herders that poisoning is not an appropriate response to livestock predation. It is also a tremendous help emotionally to know that we have support from officials and the community. This whole event has been achingly horrific (whenever I go to sleep, I keep having nightmares about finding dead hyenas) but the one positive piece is that I honestly hadn’t thought before that so many people actually cared about the wildlife in the reserve, and now I can see that they really do.

 

(Correction: Sycamore Fig is not Obama’s first cub. She had her first cub, Acacia, about a year ago, but lost him when she got her snare.)

Obama nursing Sfig

Obama nursing Sfig

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